尋

🗣 IPA: tʃ’ɛm4; 粵拼:cam4

詹憲慈《香港中文大學出版社·廣州語本字·58 尋物》原文

尋物者昨物也昨物何以謂之尋物左傳哀十二年注尋重也儀禮少牢禮蓋二以重注重累之也説文昨累日也累有重義重有尋義此昨日所以名尋物也

試解

  • 尋物者,昨物也。昨物何以謂之尋物?
  • [戰國]《左傳·哀十二年》[吳] 使人請尋盟。子貢1曰:若可尋也,亦可寒也。注尋,重也。
  • [戰國]《儀禮·少牢饋食禮》禮蓋,二以重。注重,累之也。
  • [東漢]《説文解字》昨,累日也。累有重義,重有尋義。此昨日所以名尋物也。

翻書仔注

「物」,日也。此字如何有日義,另見「今物」篇。「物」本無日義。稱日作「物」,口語合音之故。香港中文大學《粵語審音配詞字庫》注「物」IPA: mɐt6, 粵拼: mat6,同密音。字庫注「作」IPA: tʃɔk3,粵拼: zok3。香港讀和書寫皆用「尋日」。本文認為此亦「昨日」之合音。「日」用 IPA: mɐt6 音,「昨」加「日」即 IPA: tʃɔk3 + mɐt6。急讀得音 tʃɔmɐt6。今粵音無 ɔm 韻2。開口度近者唯 ɛm 韻可用。故「昨日」可讀 IPA: tʃɛmɐt6。

「昨」本身是從母濁音入聲字。現代化及粵化過程中,去、入聲字聲母按規律應變不送氣之 IPA: tʃ。變成送氣 tʃ’ 聲母應是因 k 韻尾脱落, tʃɛm 部分按平、上聲規律用 tʃ’ 聲母,變成 tʃ’ɛm。即變成近「尋」音矣。

合音詞聲調多隨後字調3。前字字調一般無規範。大概按約定俗成,音諧為正。本文認為,「昨日」一詞,可讀 IPA: tʃɛmɐt6,粵拼: camat6,音近「尋物」,此乃口語合音,無關本字形、音、義,之查證。


Synopsis

The spoken form of the Cantonese term for “yesterday” has been IPA: tʃ’ɛm4 mɐt6 and has often been written as 尋物. It is actually a corruption of 尋日, pronounced as IPA: tʃ’ɛm4 jɐt6. The combined sound takes the form tʃ’ɛmɐt6. After prolonged usage the 物 word acquired the same meaning as 日. This blog advocates that the word 尋 is a further corruption of the common word for “yesterday”, 昨. Both 尋 and 昨 share related initials tʃ’ and tʃ. When 昨 and 物 comes together to form “yesterday”, the mixed sound IPA: tʃɔk3 mɐt6 takes the form IPA: tʃɔm mɐt6. Modern Cantonese does not have the ɔm final and a near substitute is the ɛm final. The result is IPA: tʃɛmɐt6. This blog takes the position that the original character for “yesterday” is none other than 昨 although it is pronounced differently.

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  1. 端木賜(前520年-前446年),複姓端木,春秋末年衞國人,字子貢(古同子贛)。孔子門生。
  2. 據二百年前之《分韻撮要》(順德 周冠山) 古粵語曾經有 IPA: ɔm 韻。 參考陳伯煇、李薪𣁽,等。
  3. 參考《中華書局·論粵方言詞本字考釋》(陳伯煇) 3.2.1.2.2 合音

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