躝

(暫無錄音)  IPA: lam3; 粵拼: laam3

詹憲慈《香港中文大學出版社·廣州語本字·401 躝過牆頭》原文

躝者踰越也俗讀躝音近探玉篇躝踰也集𩐳躝若干切音闌今謂越過曰躝又伸大指及第二指作八字形以度物俗亦謂之躝

試解

  • 1者,踰越也。俗讀躝音近探 (IPA: t’am3; 粵拼: taam3)
  • [北宋]《玉篇》躝,踰也。
  • [北宋]《集韻》躝,若干切,音闌 (IPA: lan4; 粵拼: laan4)
  • 今謂越過曰躝。又伸大指及第二指作八字形以度物,俗亦謂之躝。
  • 翻書仔注

據《玉篇》「躝」,踰也。踰,按 []《說文解字注》越也,度也。《新華字典》又謂踰同窬。窬即窬牆之窬 (IPA: jyu4; 粵拼: jyu4)。故詹氏有躝過牆頭之例詞。躝過牆頭即跨過牆頭也。 [北宋]《廣韻》注「躝」「落干切」:

  • 來母次濁
  • 寒韻開口一等
  • 宋擬唐音 IPA: lɑn 平聲
  • 推算粵音 IPA: lan4 陽平聲 🗣

推算粵音 IPA: lan4 音近而不同本文之 IPA: lam3 目標音。或謂 IPA: lam3 乃白讀音或口語音之變。然文白異讀鮮有改變韻尾者2。從字音而言「躝」非跨。《廣州話方言詞典》3註「躝」為爬行或滾開,音 IPA: lan1。此乃引伸「躝」之踰義。合實際香港音義。🗣

《中國哲學書電子化計劃·字典》及《新華字典》皆收一「𨈇」字4,注粵音 IPA: lam3,又註跨也。收四萬七千餘字之清代《康熙字典》無「𨈇」字。「𨈇」應為近代粵、客語區自創字。「𨈇」合形合音合義,可作為新字。然非中古漢語本字。

粵語除承傳中古漢語,有音有字之外,約百分之二十詞彙源自古百越詞5,有音無字。按《粵語詞彙講義》6,若語音衹見粵、客、或閩語,不存漢字古籍,而又廣泛見用今壯侗語系民族,近音近義者,其詞實源自有音無字之古百越語。詹氏例詞躝過牆頭乃謂跨過牆頭也。壯、黎語云跨若 IPA: ha:m。傣語曰 IPA: xa:m。《粵語詞彙講義》認為本文 IPA: lam3 音之詞源自百越,無中古本字可尋。本文認同。


Synopsis:

The book brought up a word pronounced as IPA: lam3 meaning to step over. On research the word should instead evolve into a slightly different Cantonese sound IPA: lan4 meaning to crawl. The IPA: lam3 pronunciation cannot be traced to any possible Middle Chinese words. Since the word is indeed in used in southern China amongst the Cantonese and Hakka people, it is believed that the word has its root in the ancient people known collectively as Baiyue who initially populated the regions west and south of the core Han territory. They also became the present day Zhuang people in Guangxi. This article agrees with a research that the sound IPA: lam3, now written as 𨈇, did not originate from Middle Chinese and as such there is no Original Character.

  1. []《康熙字典·足部·十七》躝:《廣韻》落干切《集韻》《韻會》郞干切,𠀤音闌。《玉篇》踰也。又《集韻》唐干切,音壇。義同。
  2. 粵音陽聲韻尾 IPA: am 如監字、IPA: an 晏韻、IPA: aŋ 罌韻,各組字齊全。各不互通。
  3. 《商務印書館·廣州話方言詞典·1981 年版》(饒秉才、歐陽覺亞、周無忌)
  4. https://ctext.org/dictionary.pl?if=gb&char=𨈇 https://zidian.911cha.com/zi28207.html
  5. https://wenku.baidu.com/view/16db36f3cfc789eb162dc8b0.html《粤语中的百越语成分问题》(李敬忠)
  6. 《商務印書館·粵語詞彙講義·2018 三月》(邵慧君,甘于恩)

Leave a Reply