稴

🗣 IPA: tʃim1; 粵拼: zim1

詹憲慈《香港中文大學出版社·廣州語本字·560 稴米》原文

稴者稻之不黏者也俗讀稴若占卦之占說文稴稻不黏者廣韻稴力兼切或寫作黏字之誤也

試解

  • 1 者,稻之不黏2 者也。俗讀稴若占卦之占。
  • [東漢]《說文解字》稴,稻不黏者。(从禾兼聲。讀苦風廉之亷)
  • [北宋]《廣韻》稴,力兼切。
  • 或寫作黏字之誤也。

翻書仔注

臺灣大學 《漢字古今音資料庫》引 [北宋]《廣韻》注「稴」「力兼切」:

  • 來母次濁
  • 添韻開口四等
  • 宋擬唐音 IPA: liem 平聲
  • 推算粵音 IPA: lim4 陽平聲

詹氏謂俗讀「稴」若占。占屬章母。字書注「稴」反切眾多而無一近章母者。故粵語之 IPA: tʃim1 米,米之不黏者,非「稴」也。清代段玉裁著《說文解字注》曰俗通謂稻不黏者為秈米。亦作籼3。查籼於《壯漢在線雙向詞典》得壯拼: haeuxciem。壯拼: haeux,米也,haeuxciem ,籼米。壯語 ciem (IPA: ɕiem24 第一調) 籼也。壯語 ciem (IPA: ɕiem24) 除聲母外,音近詹氏謂俗讀「稴」若占之占,IPA: tʃim1

《廣韻》祗收「秈」,注「相然切」:

  • 心母全清
  • 仙韻開口三等
  • 宋擬唐音 IPA: sĭɛn 平聲
  • 推算粵音 IPA: ʃin1 陰平聲,🗣

[北宋]《集韻》之「籼」亦注「相然切」。故「籼」同「秈」音。兩字韻尾皆為開口鼻音 IPA: n。本文認為詹氏所指之俗讀若占應從壯侗語族而來。本文之本字應爲「秈」或「籼」。本音 IPA: ʃin1。俗讀若壯語 IPA: ɕiem24

香港俗寫「秈」為「粘」4。「粘」應為「黏」之古俗字或簡化字。同音同義。兩字《廣韻》俱注「女廉切」。香港中文大學《粵語審音配詞字庫》注 IPA: nim4。中大字庫又注「粘」異讀音 IPA: tʃim1,用於「粘米」一詞。香港人若見字忘音,有謂「見邊讀邊」。「粘」从米从占,借用作壯語 IPA: ɕiem24 之粵語記音字,自然不過。


Synopsis:

Long grain non-sticky rice is called IPA: tʃim1 rice in Cantonese. There are fancier names in the market nowadays but the name is still commonly used for the flour made from the non-sticky rice. The character the market uses to label the flour is which by itself is an irregular form of the character , meaning to stick or to adhere. The book suggested the character which matches the meaning but not the pronunciation. This article looked at a number of other possible characters and they all have pronunciation differences. Since the word is known to originate from southern China, the search for the word went to the Zhuang language of the Tai-Kadai linguistic group. The Zhuang word for non-sticky rice is pronounced as IPA: ɕiem24 which is close to the Cantonese IPA: tʃim1. This article believes the Cantonese borrowed the Zhuang pronunciation and assigned the character to it. The Original Character should be or but they are no longer in common use.

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  1. []《康熙字典·禾部·十》稴:《廣韻》力兼切《集韻》勒兼切,𠀤音濂。《說文》稻不黏者。一曰靑稻白米。又稴䆎,禾不實貌。又《廣韻》戸兼切,音嫌。又《廣韻》《集韻》𠀤胡讒切,音咸。又《集韻》堅嫌切,音兼。又《廣韻》力忝切《集韻》盧忝切,𠀤音溓。又《廣韻》力店切《集韻》歷店切,𠀤音㝺。義𠀤同。
  2. []《說文解字注》稻不黏者:凡穀皆有黏者有不黏者。秫則稷之黏者也。穄則黍之不黏者也。稻有不黏者則稴是也。今俗通謂不黏者為秈米。集韻類篇皆云。方言江南呼稉為秈。亦作籼、作粞。按說文、玉篇皆有稴無秈。蓋秈即稴字音變而字異耳。廣雅曰。秈、稉也。渾然不別也。
  3. []《康熙字典·米部·三》籼:《集韻》相然切,音仙。本作秈。《揚子·方言》江南呼稉爲秈。或作𦱑。亦作䄽。
  4. []《康熙字典·米部·五》粘:《廣韻》女廉切《集韻》尼占切,𠀤音黏。《說文》相著也。同黏。

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